In the history of theatre there has always been a conflict between engagement and disengagement on politics and relevant issue, between satire and grotesque on one side, and jest with teasing on the other.  Max Eastman defined the spectrum of satire in terms of "degrees of biting", as ranging from satire proper at the hot-end, and "kidding" at the violet-end; Eastman adopted the term kidding to denote what is just satirical in form, but is not really firing at the target.  Nobel laureate satirical playwright Dario Fo pointed out the difference between satire and teasing ( sfottò ).  Teasing is the reactionary side of the comic ; it limits itself to a shallow parody of physical appearance. The side-effect of teasing is that it humanizes and draws sympathy for the powerful individual towards which it is directed. Satire instead uses the comic to go against power and its oppressions, has a subversive character, and a moral dimension which draws judgement against its targets.     Fo formulated an operational criterion to tell real satire from sfottò , saying that real satire arouses an outraged and violent reaction, and that the more they try to stop you, the better is the job you are doing.  Fo contends that, historically, people in positions of power have welcomed and encouraged good-humoured buffoonery, while modern day people in positions of power have tried to censor, ostracize and repress satire.  
The renowned twentieth century author and journalist, Ernest Miller Hemingway had provided the world of literature a few of the best pieces. Hemingway essays and Hemingway short stories are perfect examples of modern literature. The understated and economic style of Ernest Hemingway essays mesmerized the readers of the twentieth century. Most of Hemingway’s essays and short stories were produced during the mid of 1920’s and mid of 1950’s. Continue reading →
But Sanders wasn’t fatalistic. Unlike many of his contemporaries, his response to the crushing corporate state was to rise up against it through the political system he decried. In 1971, two years after his first essays for the Freeman , he launched his first political campaign. He ran for Senate and lost, and then lost three more campaigns over the next four years.
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