Conditional duties involve various types of agreements, the principal one of which is the duty is to keep one's promises.
This is an example of a deductive syllogism in an advertisement. Or, actually, only the two premises are given and the listener is expected to automatically deduce the conclusion. The first premise is a general law: faster is better. The second premise applies the law to a particular situation. And the implied conclusion is obvious: the iPhone is better. This conclusion is so obvious that it doesn’t need to be stated — another demonstration of the fact that deductive conclusions are already contained in the premises, as discussed earlier.
Medieval philosophy had been concerned primarily with argument from authority and the analysis of ancient texts using Aristotelian logic. The Renaissance saw an outpouring of new ideas that questioned authority. Roger Bacon (1214-1294?) was one of the first writers to advocate putting authority to the test of experiment and reason. Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527) challenged conventional ideas about morality . Francis Bacon (1561-1626) wrote in favor of the methods of science in philosophical discovery.
But Expectable Consequentialism has a strange implication. Suppose someone from Tuberculosis Aid comes to my door, says only, “Would you give to Tuberculosis Aid?” and hands me a pamphlet, which explains their evil plans on page 2. The reasonable way to estimate consequences would involve at least glancing through the pamphlet, but I am not interested. I simply assume that this group fights tuberculosis, and I do not look at the pamphlet because I do not care. I do not donate. Thus, without reasonably thinking about my choice, I have done what it would have been reasonable to estimate would have the best results. So Expectable Consequentialism says my thoughtless selfish action was morally right. If you do not want to praise my conduct, you might prefer a new version of consequentialism:
The actual % is irrelevant, what is important is that a large percentage of a work group will either take advantage of a situation or go along with the work group – therefore it is vital that organizations provide communication and control mechanisms to maintain an ethical culture
This version of How to Build Character Through Integrity was reviewed by Kirsten Schuder on August 24, 2015.